Program Studi S1
Hukum

Program Studi S2
Magister Hukum

Fakultas Hukum ?

Berjiwa Unggul, Inklusif, Humanis dan Berintegritas

Fakultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta merupakan fakultas yang Mempelajari sistem dan administarasi perundang-undagan di Indonesia, termasuk kaidah yang berlaku dalam masyarakat.

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Program Kekhususan (PK)

Untuk menunjang PIP (Pola Ilmiah Pokok) Hukum Ekonomi & Bisnis, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta mengembangkan 5 (lima) Program Kekhususan untuk S1 dan 4 (empat) Konsentrasi Studi untuk S2, yaitu :

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Dapatkan Informasi Seputar PMB Fakultas Hukum

Pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan penerimaan mahasiswa baru Fakultas Hukum UAJY, informasi, serta syarat-syarat dapat dilihat melalui link dibawah ini.

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Agenda Fakultas

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Agenda Terdekat :

PENDIDIKAN KHUSUS PROFESI ADVO...

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Campus Tour

Keliling kampus Fakultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta !

Fakultas Hukum UAJY Berita
  • 20, Mei 2024

STUDI KOMPARASI PENGELOLA JURNAL ILMIAH DENGAN FAKULTAS HUKUM UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA

Segenap Pengelola Jurnal Fakultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta melakukan Studi Komparasi P...

Fakultas Hukum UAJY Berita
  • 17, Mei 2024

Rapat Tinjauan Manajemen Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta

Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta menyelenggarakan Rapat Tinjauan Manajemen pada 16 Mei 2024 di Ruang...

Fakultas Hukum UAJY Berita
  • 12, Mei 2024

Andien Kirana W. Meraih Juara 1 dalam Kejuaraan Bulutangkis USM (Univ. Semarang) Open 2024

Selamat kepada mahasiswi Fakultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, Andien Kirana Widjanarko,...


Publikasi

Taliban Overthrow Afghanistan’s Government: Women Rights in Crisis
25, Sep

Taliban Overthrow Afghanistan’s Government: Women Rights in Crisis Andreana Puspita, Fifi Selia, and Komala Dewi Putri P (made.adepuspita01@gmail.com), (fifiseriaa@gmail.com), and (komaladewiputri@gmail.com) (Member of Atma Jaya Yogyakarta International Law Society/AILS) The issue of human rights is one of the grave issues in this era since it is part of our daily lives. It is not supposed to be limited to minorities and gender-based differences. However, the chance of obtaining these rights seems to have gone down because of the persecution and injustice that is structured in the form of policies and social stereotypes. Today, Afghan women also have to face the same problem. Since the Taliban overthrew the Afghan government in mid-August this year, women in Afghanistan expressed their fear of Taliban fighters. The changes caught in public spaces such as the decreasing number of women going out of their house or just strolling around the city. Others are ordered to stay at home and female students at college lectures are divided with the males by a curtain. Eventually, the Taliban had an enormous effect on Afghan daily life, especially on Afghan women. The Taliban is an organization established in 1994 by Mujahideen to compel a strict understanding of Islamic Law in the state. Particularly on women, burqas are mandatory to wear by covering their entire body and the face. Girls were not allowed to study after ten years old and could not leave their homes without any relative (man) accompanying them. Moreover, The Taliban frequently conduct public executions, such as chopping off thieves’ hands. As a result, the Taliban has been frequently criticized for violations of human rights by countries across the world. The Taliban-America armed conflict in Afghanistan is nothing new. It all started when Four U.S. commercial flights got hijacked on the 11th of September 2001 by a force commanded by Osama bin Laden from Afghanistan. The planes then collided with the Pentagon, the World Trade Center towers, and another landed on a Pennsylvania field. This accident caused the deaths of civilians and millions of estimated damages. Thus, in October 2001, Allied soldiers led by the United States stormed Afghanistan and as a consequence, The Taliban were defeated in the first week of December 2001. After the Taliban left the capital of Afghanistan in early December 2001, Hamid Karzai was appointed temporary head of the Afghan government, and NATO began to mobilize ISAF. On the 9th of October 2004, the Taliban crossed the border again and revolted. The mutiny continues throughout the year. Fast further to 2011, Osama bin Laden was killed in a U.S. Special Forces operation in Pakistan. The incident seems unaffecting to the Taliban, and it only fuels them to be more powerful. Eventually, in mid-2018, representatives from Washington and the Taliban were quietly opening talks in Doha, Qatar, demanding that the U.S reduce its troops in Afghanistan in return that the Taliban will not protect Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. Both sides continued to negotiate. However, on the 7th of September 2019, U.S. President Donald Trump canceled the conversation after news broke that the U.S. military soldier had been killed in a Kabul suicide attack. Eventually, in early 2020, the U.S. and the Taliban signed a peace agreement in Doha, which states that “The entire U.S. army is expected to leave Afghanistan at the earliest in May 2021, if the Taliban arrange further conversations with the Afghan government for their future”. The dire situation started after Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani fled from Kabul Airport to Tajikistan. The reason for the president suddenly leaving the state is unknown. The president’s office only stated that they could not confide the president’s movement because of security reasons. Later, it was known that Ghani’s reason for leaving Afghanistan was to ‘prevent bloodshed’. He also denied Russia’s accusations about him taking a large sum of money after he fled from the state. After the President retreated from Afghanistan, the Taliban began taking control of cities in Afghanistan and several hours later regained control of the Afghan central government. The Taliban continue to target Afghan armies and civilians and expand their territory. But, unlike previously, the Taliban now promise that they will no longer allow Afghanistan as a base for any group that threatens western nations, promising “peaceful power over and that the property and safety of all Afghans will not be disturbed”. Not only that, in Mujahid’s first press conference, he confirmed that “women will receive their rights in both jobs and other activities.” According to him, women are also a significant part of society. So, they will provide a guarantee of women’s rights but within the limits set in Islam, where the Taliban will allow them to work and learn within sharia law. The things presented by the Taliban regarding women’s rights turned out to be suspicion and distrust by Afghan women. Many thought that this was just an excuse by the Taliban to take over Afghanistan completely. This issue caught the attention of Pakistan activist Malala Yousafzai, a Nobel peace prize laureate at 17. She responded the issue by stating that she was very concerned about the Afghan women rights that constantly got threatened by Taliban rule. In any way, women in Afghanistan are pessimistic given the Taliban’s history of suppressing women’s rights. Many of girls got so desperate that they will never see the classroom and hold the books. In addition to reports that many women have been turned down from universities and offices. Afghan women need protection, education, freedom, a promised future and there’s no more time to let them down. Responding to the Afghan women anxiety, the Taliban said that the girls still can get their chances to attend school, and that they are still working on a secure transportation system for girls in grades six to twelve. Mujahid also said that girls who are in university still can pursue their education. Universities and schools in the capital city of Kabul started to open after being closed for more than a month. New rules are being implemented in schools and universities, such as gender-based class segregation and the demanded the girls to wear the hijab following the Taliban’s interpretation of Islamic law. Even though schools and institutions have opened, secondary school girls are still barred from attending and must wait for further information. The current position of Afghan women is concerning given the realization that there was still injustice to women’s rights. Even though education for women has been carried out in the state, schools that have begun to open and transportation for school has progressed, but adult women still struggle to build up their careers because they haven’t got their rights to work. The new Taliban government imposed that other than women who work in government, female employees should be kept indoors so that all the work was done by men. This is in contravention of Article 11 (a) of CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women) states that a state party should take appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the right to work as an inalienable right of all human beings. As a party state to the CEDAW 1979 Convention, Afghanistan has the obligation to carry out this provision and ensure adult women in the state get their equal chances to work. The Taliban leaders have stated that women’s rights will be respected. However, the new caretaker government of Afghanistan consists of only male personnels. So far, there are no women in the new cabinet. Taliban also indicate that there will not be any women that hold senior government positions, as none have been announced so far. It is in contravention of Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which declares that all humans have the same rights regardless of sex, and Article 21 (1) which declares that everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. It is also in contravention of Article 8 of CEDAW 1979 states that a state party shall take all measures to ensure women the opportunity to represent their Governments at the international level. Afghanistan has the obligation to eliminate discrimination against women and strive to create equality by allowing women to work at the government cabinet of Afghanistan. According to CNN, Human Rights Activist and CEO of Afghan’s women network Mahbouba Seraj stated that the Taliban must give Afghan women a chance to live their life, also the women need to keep their rights and be recognized according to Islam. However, the situation had only become worse since the Taliban had also closed the women’s affairs ministry and replaced it with the Ministry for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, which was commissioned to enforce Islamic law. As a state party of CEDAW, Afghanistan contravenes Article 7 (b) of this convention, states that a state party shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the right to participate in the formulation of government policy and the implementation thereof and to hold public office and perform all public functions at all levels of government. For this reason, about two dozen Afghan women began to protest against the government imposed by the Taliban. The protesters carried signs and demonstrated in front of the Ministry for Promotion of Virtue by expressing their opinions stating that the Taliban are taking their rights. They demand that The Ministry of Women’s Affairs should be reactivated. They also state that if there is a society where women are not actively taking part, it is a dead society. The Taliban had previously promised to respect women’s rights so as not to repeat things that occurred in 1996-2001. They claim that asking most women to stay at home is only for temporary and security reasons, but this only becomes a suspicion if the previous repression would return. Many women feel that this order will affect Afghan women’s rights in the future. As protests emerge, Taliban militants forcibly evict working women and assault women who are defending their rights. The Taliban reportedly fired gunshots into the air to disperse demonstrations in Kabul street. It is in contravention of Article 19 of ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), which states that everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference. With many protesters being chased off by violence, it only worsened the reputation of the Taliban and had also increased the doubt that women of Afghanistan can get equal rights in their own country. Conclusively, Afghanistan as a state should pay attention to human rights issues, especially women’s rights, because they are vulnerable to violations. As a state party of CEDAW and ICCPR, Afghanistan has the obligation to obey the conventions and their provisions. Policies or anything related to the state and human rights should be considered by Afghanistan and the Taliban if there are indications of violations. The Taliban must prove that they are no longer preventing Afghan women from working, they can enroll in school and have access to education, and ensure their political rights as described in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, CEDAW, and ICCPR subsequently. Sources: Alasdair Pal, “Some Afghan girls return to school, others face anxious wait”, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/some-afghan-girls-return-school-others-face-anxious-wait-2021-09-18/, accessed September 19, 2021. BBC, “Who are the Taliban?”, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-11451718, accessed September 16, 2021. BBC, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia-58258919, accessed September 19, 2021. CNN, “’What are they going to do? Kill all of us?’: Hear from female activist in Kabul”, https://edition.cnn.com/videos/world/2021/09/16/afghanistan-taliban-mahbouba-seraj-robertson-intl-ldn-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/afghanistan-falls-to-the-taliban/, accessed September 18, 2021. CNN, “Kilas Balik Intervensi AS di Afghanistan hingga Tarik Pasukan”, https://www.cnnindonesia.com/internasional/20201118184350-113-571527/kilas-balik-intervensi-as-di-afghanistan-hingga-tarik-pasukan, accessed September 19, 2021. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CEDAW.aspx, accessed September 24, 2021. Emma Graham-Harrison, Akhtar Mohammad Makoii, “Evidence contradicts Taliban’s claim to respect women’s rights”, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/sep/03/afghanistan-women-defiant-amid-taliban-crackdown, accessed September 23, 2021. Emma Graham-Harrison, Akhtar Mohammad Makoii, “Taliban name all-male Afghan cabinet including minister wanted by FBI”, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/sep/07/taliban-name-afghanistans-new-government, accessed September 23, 2021. Heru Adriyanto, “20 Tahun Dikeroyok Amerika dan NATO, Taliban Kembali Berkuasa”, https://www.beritasatu.com/fokus/amerika-pergi-taliban-kembali, accessed September 20, 2021. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx, accessed September 24, 2021. Inza Maliana, “Kilas Balik Perjuangan Malala Yousafzai Hadapi Taliban, Kini Ragukan Janji Taliban Hormati Perempuan”,  https://www.tribunnews.com/internasional/2021/08/18/kilas-balik-perjuangan-malala-yousafzai-hadapi-taliban-kini-ragukan-janji-taliban-hormati-perempuan?page=4, accessed  September 20, 2021. James Mackenzie, “Exiled Ghani says he left Kabul to prevent bloodshed, did not take money”, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/exiled-ghani-says-he-left-kabul-prevent-bloodshed-did-not-take-money-2021-08-18/ ,accessed September 23, 2021. Julia Hollingsworth, “ Who are the Taliban and how did they take control of Afghanistan so swiftly?”, https://edition.cnn.com/2021/08/16/middleeast/taliban-control-afghanistan-explained-intl-hnk/index.html, accessed September 18, 2021. Matthew Loh, “The Taliban’s education minister says it will allow Afghan women to attend university, but mixed gender classes will be banned”, https://www.insider.com/women-can-attend-university-mixed-classes-banned-taliban-education-minister-2021-8, accessed September 19, 2021. Nic Robertson, Ingrid Formanek, Taylor Barnes and Ivana Kottasová, “Taliban deny claims girls will be banned from school — but don’t say when they’ll be allowed in”, https://edition.cnn.com/2021/09/18/asia/afghanistan-schools-girls-taliban-intl/index.html, accessed September 19, 2021. Patrick Jackson, “Serangan 11 September: Apa yang terjadi hari itu dan setelahnya?”, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia-58084150, accessed September 16, 2021. Reuters, “Afghan activists protest outside shuttered women affairs ministry”, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/afghan-activists-protest-outside-shuttered-women-affairs-ministry-2021-09-19/, accessed September 24, 2021. Reuters, “Afghan Pres Ghani leaves for Tajikistan – interior ministry official”, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/afghan-pres-ghani-leaves-tajikistan-interior-ministry-official-2021-08-15/, accessed September 23, 2021. Reuters, “Afghan protests persist, posing a problem for new Taliban government”, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/afghan-protests-persist-posing-problem-new-taliban-government-2021-09-07/, accessed September 24, 2021. Secunder Kermani, “Afghanistan: Apa yang terjadi selama satu bulan Taliban berkuasa?”, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia-58567688, accessed September 20, 2021. The Guardian, “Afghan women stage protest in Kabul after Taliban crack down on women’s rights – video report”,  https://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2021/sep/19/afghan-women-stage-protest-in-kabul-after-taliban-crack-down-on-womens-rights-video-report, accessed September 23, 2021. The Guardian, “Kabul government’s female workers told to stay at home by Taliban”, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/sep/19/kabul-governments-female-workers-told-to-stay-at-home-by-taliban , accessed September 23, 2021. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights, accessed September 19, 2021.

TOXIC COVID-19 POLICY: MISERIES OF REFUGEES
24, Agt

Chaterine Maudy Amelia Widi, Maria Veronica Giuseppina B M, dan Priska Anggita (chaterinemaudy@gmail.com), (mariaregiu18@gmail.com), dan (priskaanggi00@gmail.com) (Member of Atma Jaya International Law Society/AILS)        Coronavirus or namely COVID-19 is a deadly virus spreads around the globe, killing and infecting millions which emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization described the new Coronavirus as a pandemic for the first time on Wednesday 11 March 2020. More than 370.000 people reported dead (last updated on 31 May 2020). The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The spread of the virus is lightning, every state has to take action to minimize the spread of the increasingly widespread virus by identifying hot spots and clusters, and system capacity and respondents to find, isolate and treat cases, and quarantine contacts make people should stay at home, work from home, and do physical distancing to stopping the virus. The global pandemic has changed the way people live their life. People are urged to washing hands, wearing face mask when they leave the house even wearing gloves, and physical distancing from each other. Not to mention, offices and schools are currently doing the work from home and learn from home.        Stay at home has been campaigned to limit the infection of the virus. It is indeed a simple yet good step to protect people from the virus. People are able to stay inside their houses and work from home even learning with no fear of being infected. On the other side, it is not a very good news for those who are living in the war zone. According to the United Nations, there are 25 million refugees in camps around the world who face particularly acute obstacles in the fight against COVID-19. “The core principles of refugee protection are being put to test – but people who are forced to flee conflict and persecution should not be denied safety and protection on the pretext, or even as a side effect, of responding to the virus,” stated by Filippo Grandi, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.        Speaking of lockdown policy, refugees (people who have crossed an international frontier and are at risk or have been victims of persecution in their country of origin) and other displaced communities (people who have not crossed an international frontier but have for some reasons also fled their home) have difficulties to prevent the virus. For example, most of refugees inconvenience to wash their hands when access to water is limited, they are not able to keep physical distancing to stop the virus because they lived in overcrowded camps. If in normal country healthcare is available, most of the medical system in the war zone destroyed and there’s no stable healthcare system for this reason many refugee camps don’t have proper tools to detect the virus for example in Syria where the public health system is fragile after years of conflict. There is a general shortage of qualified personnel and adequate treatment facilities: if in the Damascus governorate only 18 hospital beds are available for 10,000 people, in many other governorates there are none. In rural Damascus there are 5 beds per 10,000 people, Homs and Dar’a both have 3, which is well below the normal standard indicated by the Interagency Standing Committee (IASC) which provides a minimum of 10 beds per 10,000 people.        Besides of inadequate public health, the increasing outbreak of COVID-19 affects many countries attempt to neglect refugees, migrants, or asylum seeker by using this pandemic as a pretext. Those countries attempt to avoid their responsibility to protect these communities which violates International Law. The aftermath of the lack of attention towards the refugees, displaced community, and asylum seekers lead them to desperately searching for foods, lack of public health and other facilities that often caused them to break the social distancing or the curfew. In some cases, there are quite many abusive and heavy–handed action commits by security officers towards the communities to make them abide by the restrictions. Regarding this situation, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet on her additional statement said, “Shooting, detaining, or abusing someone for breaking a curfew because they are desperately searching for food is an unacceptable and unlawful response. So is making it difficult or dangerous for a woman to get to the hospital to give birth. In some cases, people are dying because of the inappropriate application of measures that have been supposedly put in place to save them.”        In order to restrain the spread of COVID-19, there are some measures done by the countries that are inappropriate, unjustified, and discriminating towards the displaced communities. Recently, United States and some countries in the European Union allegedly refusing to provide shelter for migrants and referring their actions as a measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19. It is confirmed that on 18 April 2020 about 10.000 people expelled in 2 hours after arriving on U.S soil and effectively denying the legal rights of asylum seekers according to Customs and Border Protection. United States commits the Refoulement acts towards the displacement communities as they escorted back over the border into Mexico where acts of crimes and abuse reportedly awful there. On the other side in Indonesia, more than a low number of refugees compared to other countries, refugees in Indonesia are vulnerable, with many living in crowded rooms and tents without access to electricity and running air. Accordingly to Emergency Measures and COVID-19 Guidance, “Even without formally declaring states of emergency, States can adopt exceptional measures to protect public health that may restrict certain human rights. These restrictions must meet the requirements of legality, necessity, and proportionality, and be non-discriminatory.” In this context, most states may have the tendency that their action (refuse to accommodate and provide the refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers in terms of public health) are exceptional and emergency measures and are provided by their National Law therefore it means they are complying with legality aspects. However, every state also must need to comply with the others aspect which is very important. Director of Field Operations, Georgette Gagnon, in online press conference added, “A main concern on exceptional and emergency natural measures is what’s been described as a toxic lockdown culture in some countries.”        Hereby, a toxic lockdown culture not only contained aggressive and heavy-handed action but also the state’s measures which tend to neglect some communities in order to prioritize others. The toxic lockdown policy not accordance to UDHR which guarantees the right to seek and enjoy asylum in other countries. Since what has been published by this global Coronavirus outbreak, the health of everyone is a priority with no differentiation including most marginalized and vulnerable members in a society like refugees, citizens without citizenship, and internally displaced people according to international human rights and refugee protection standards including through quarantines and health checks.        As a non-party to the 1951 Refugee Convention, Indonesia has no obligation to receive refugees. However, Indonesia has Presidential Decree issued in 2016 that guarantees legal certainty and operational standards to handling refugees. Due to this pandemic, according to Article 26 of the Presidential Decree stipulates that basic necessities such as clean water, food, clothing, health care, hygiene and religious facilities should be sought from international organizations. This article shows that Indonesia still has to provide adequate facilities for the health of the refugees eventhough Indonesia is a non-party to the 1951 Refugee Convention. Hereby, us as one global community, we have to work together to battle the virus, the fake news, and the panic. Furthermore, we also have to pay attention to the fear of the refugees because it will affect all aspects of us even not equally. Sumber: Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/live-events/coronavirus-6-id2921484, accessed 23 May 2020. WHO, https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1, accessed 23 May 2020. UNHCR, https://www.unhcr.org/cy/2020/04/22/beware-long-term-damage-to-human-rights-and-refugee-rights-from-the-coronavirus-pandemic-unhcr/, accessed 1 June 2020 Intersos, “Syria: Coronavirus And A Conflict-Ridden Health System”, https://www.intersos.org/en/syria-coronavirus-and-a-war-torn-health-system/, accessed 1 June 2020. United Nation, “Toxic lockdown culture of repressive coronavirus measures hits most vulnerable”, https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/04/1062632, accessed 29 May 2020. United Nation Human Rights Office of The High Commissioner, Bachelet,  “COVID-19: Exceptional measures should not be cover for human rights abuses and violations, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25828&LangID=E, accessed 29 May 2020. Nina Lakhani, “US Using Coronavirus Pandemic To Unlawfully Expel Asylum Seekers, Says UN”, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/17/us-asylum-seekers-coronavirus-law-un#maincontent, accessed 29 May 2020. Dian Septriari, “UNHCR Works To Ensure No Refugees Left Behind In COVID-19 Crisis In Indonesia”, https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/04/05/unhcr-works-to-ensure-no-refugees-left-behind-in-covid-19-crisis-in-indonesia.html, accessed 1 June 2020 United Nation Human Rights Office of The High Commissioner, “Emergency Measures and COVID-19 Guidance”, https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Events/EmergencyMeasures_COVID19.pdf, accessed 31 May 2020. UN News, “Toxic lockdown culture of repressive coronavirus measures hits most vulnerable” https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/04/1062632 accessed 2 June 2020

MENGGUGAT CHINA ATAS VIRUS COVID-19 OLEH YUDHA PANDE RAJA
03, Jun

MENGGUGAT CHINA ATAS VIRUS COVID-19 oleh Yudha Pande Raja, 170512864, Mahasiswa Fakultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya YogyakartaProgram Kekhususan Hukum Internasional, stmrgyudha@gmail.com               Pandemi COVID-19 memberikan dampak kerugian ekonomi bagi banyak negara di dunia saat ini. Keadaan ekonomi yang memburuk akibat terhentinya produksi dalam negeri, kegiatan ekspor dan impor, lalu lintas perdagangan, dsb. Selain itu, pemerintah dalam negeri pun juga terbebani dengan kewajiban memberikan subsidi dan bantuan dalam negeri bagi warganya yang terdampak virus tersebut.[1] Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) memperkirakan kerugian akibat pandemi covid-19 akan mencapai 9 Trilliun Dollar AS, dan tidak ada satupun negara yang tidak terdampak dari krisis yang disebabkan bencana ini.[2] Kerugian besar tersebut menimbulkan kemarahan yang luar biasa bagi banyak pihak, tidak terkecuali pemerintah dan pelaku bisnis yang terdampak. Kemarahan tersebut dimanifestasikan dalam bentuk gugatan yang menyasa ke Negara China, negara yang disinyalir sebagai tempat kelahiran Virus Covid-19. Setidaknya ada empat gugatan hukum berproses di Amerika Serikat yang menuntut kompensasi dari pemerintah China. Negara bagian Missouri di Amerika Serikat melalui Jaksa Agung Negara telah melayangkan gugatan dengan tuduhan bahwa pemerintah China telah menyembunyikan informasi Covid-19 dan lamban menanganinya, sehingga virus dapat menyebar sampai ke Amerika Serikat.[3] Sekelompok warga di Negara Bagian Texas, Amerika Serikat juga melayangkan gugatan class action dengan tuntutan kompensasi sebesar 20 Trilliun Dollar, atas klaim bahwa China mengembangkan senjata biologi berupa Virus Corona.[4] Menanggapi hal tersebut, juru bicara Kementerian Luar Negeri China, Geng Shuang menyatakan bahwa gugatan kepada China adalah lelucon belaka sebab virus Covid-19 adalah musuh bersama dan pemerintah China telah memberikan informasi dan pencegahan penyebaran virus tersebut secara masif.[5] Fenomena tersebut dapat ditelusuri dalam bidang hukum mengenai bagaimanakah proses gugatan terhadap China dapat dilaksanakan? Dalam Hukum Internasional terdapat banyak wadah bagi individu maupun pemerintah suatu negara untuk menggugat negara lain dalam suatu perkara. Gugatan dapat dilayangkan pada pengadilan suatu negara, atau Mahkamah Internasional (International Court of Justice) atau arbitrase Internasional seperti Permanent Court of Arbitration. Namun harus diuji terlebih dahulu, apakah Lembaga peradilan tersebut memiliki kewenangan untuk mengadili. Apabila gugatan diajukan kepada pengadilan di suatu negara maka pemerintah China dapat berdalih dengan adanya kekebalan (imunity) yang dimilikinya sehingga tidak dapat diadili di Lembaga peradilan nasional. Hal tersebut dikenal sebagai Doktrin Imunitas yang mengijinkan suatu negara menuntut imunitas atau kekebalan di depan pengadilan nasional negara asing berkaitan dengan penerapan hukum lokal yang bersangkutan.[6] Kemudian bila gugatan diajukan ke Mahkamah Internasional, maka pengajuan gugatan hanya dapat dilakukan oleh Negara, bukan individu, korporasi, ataupun badan hukum. Mahkamah Internasional itu sendiri memiliki kewenangan untuk menyelesaikan sengketa negara antar negara-negara anggota, Lembaga ini juga memberikan pendapat atau nasihat kepada badan-badan resmi dan Lembaga khusus yang dibentuk oleh PBB. Pengajuan gugatan melalui jalur Mahkamah Internasional dapat menjadi pilihan yang tepat apabila suatu negara ingin menuntut ganti kerugian atas Covid-19 kepada Pemerintah China namun terdapat kendala yaitu dalam menetapkan perkara diperlukan adanya persetujuan terlebih dahulu dari para pihak yang bersengketa. Permasalahan lain yang timbul adalah yang menjadi pertanyaan, apakah yang menjadi dasar gugatan terhadap China? Dalam penyelesaian perkara internasional (sengketa antar negara) di Mahkamah Internasional, hakim mengacu pada konvensi-konvensi internasional untuk menetapkan perkara. Oleh karena itu, kita harus mengetahui konvensi internasional apa yang mengatur ketentuan dan membahas seputar wabah dan pertanggungjawaban negara. Beberapa konvensi yang dapat dijadikan acuan gugatan adalah : Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)Konvensi Perdagangan Internasional tumbuhan dan satwa liar spesies adalah perjanjian Internasional yang mengatur tentang perdagangan satwa liar dan spesies tertentu yang disusun berdasarkan sidang resolusi badan konservasi dunia tahun 1963. Konvensi tersebut merupakan instrument hukum yang melindungi lebih dari 33.000 spesies flora dan fauna dunia. Beberapa sumber dan laporan meyakini bahwa virus Covid-19 lahir dari pasar hewan di kota Wuhan dimana hewan dengan spesies yang dilindungi dalam CITES seperti kelelawar diperdagangkan sebagai bahan makanan. Kondisi ini lah yang disinyalir melahirkan lingkungan bagi virus Covid-19 dan berpindah dari inang hewan menuju manusia. Untuk itu, gugatan terhadap China dapat didasari kelalaian dari pemerintah China dalam menghormati dan melaksanakan Konvensi CITES tersebut. International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005Peraturan Kesehatan Internasional adalah perjanjian internasional yang mengikat negara-negara di dunia, termasuk anggota World Health Organization (WHO), untuk bekerja sama dalam hal Kesehatan Internasional. Dalam Konvensi tersebut diatur mengenai kewajiban negara-negara anggota untuk memberikan informasi kepada WHO tentang keadaan suatu penyakit yang mungkin berkembang menjadi wabah ataupun pandemi (memicu kedaruratan masyarakat luas). Keterlambatan China sebagaimana didalilkan oleh penggugat diatas adalah bentuk kelalaian dari Pemerintah China, dan hal tersebut melanggar Hukum Internasional. The Convention on the Prohibition of The Development Production and Stockpilling of Biological and Toxic Weapons and on their Destruction.Konvensi Senjata Biologis (KSB) tahun 2008 adalah instrument hukum internasional yang membahas tentang pembatasan penggunaan ilmu biologi dan bioteknologi, yang tujuannya adalah penggunaan ilmu untuk pengembangan yang dikendalikan agar tidak menjadi senjata bioligis. Pasal I konvensi tersebut menyatakan bahwa kewajiban negara anggota untuk mengawasi dan melakukan perlindungan terhadap mikroba atau agen biologis lain dalam tujuan damai dan pengembangan ilmu. Apabila para penggugat meyakini bahwa China telah mengembangkan virus Covid-19 untuk tujuan tertentu, konvensi ini dapat dijadikan dasar gugatan. Konvensi-konvensi tersebut adalah contoh dari instrument hukum yang dapat dijadikan dasar gugatan terhadap China di Mahkamah Internasional. Namun, masih banyak faktor lain yang harus diteliti dalam menjatuhkan gugatan tersebut, seperti beban pembuktian terhadap gugatan, data dan fakta yang mendukung gugatan, dsb. Selain itu, eksekusi terhadap gugatan ganti kerugian dan kompensasi pun harus menjadi perhatian khusus, sejauh mana pertanggungjawaban negara terhadap kerugian negara lain, mengingat pemerintah China saat ini pun tengah berupaya untuk menghentikan laju penyebaran Virus Covid-19 ini, dan seluruh negara juga mengalami hal yang sama. Mengatasi berbagai permasalahan yang ada, dibutuhkan kesadaran dari dunia internasional untuk dapat menyelesaikan seluruh permasalahan yang ada dengan baik. [1]https://economy.okezone.com/read/2020/04/03/20/2193348/world-bank-beri-saran-perangi-corona-hingga-bantuan-untuk-indonesia [2]https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20200324183549-532-486628/efek-corona-imf-prediksi-pertumbuhan-ekonomi-global-negatif [3]https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/world/coronavirus-cases-world.html#link-6545699f [4]https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-20/coronavirus-china-sued-american-class-action-germany-sends-bill/12164106 [5] https://www.wartaekonomi.co.id/read282431/china-kalem-hadapi-gugatan-gugatan-terkait-pandemi-corona [6] http://repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/35735/Chapter%20II.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y

DI TENGAH PANDEMI COVID-19 OLEH FHILIPPO APRIANDO
03, Jun

DI TENGAH PANDEMI COVID-19   Oleh Fhilippo Apriando, 170512828, Mahasiswa Fakultas Hukum Universita Atma Jaya Yogyakarta,Program Kekhususan Lingkungan Hidup dan Pertanahan philippogirsang@gmail.com   “Lekas pulih Bumiku”. Kata-kata inilah yang tepat mencerimkan harapan setiap manusia melihat keadaan dunia saat ini yang sedang dilanda persebaran virus Covid-19. Pada Maret 2020 dapat dilihat jumlah korban virus Covid-19 setiap harinya selalu meningkat secara drastis dikarenakan pada saat itu masih terdapat beberapa pribadi yang egois dan tidak peduli dengan keadaan juga tidak adanya ketegasan dari pemerintah terkait regulasi yang seharusnya diberlakukan ditengah pandemi ini. Beredar kabar bahwa virus Covid-19 yang masuk ke Indonesia disebabkan adanya wisatawan asing yang datang ke Indonesia ataupun WNI yang kembali ke Indonesia karena kepentingan di luar negeri. Seharusnya pada saat itu langkah awal yang dapat dilakukan pemerintah adalah dengan memberlakukan  Pasal 13 ayat (1) UU No.6 Tahun 2011 tentang Keimigrasian yang dimana Pejabat Imigrasi menolak Orang Asing masuk Wilayah Indonesia dalam hal orang asing tersebut menderita penyakit menular yang membahayakan kesehatan umum karena sebelum virus Covid-19 tersebar luas di wilayah Indoneisa, beberapa negara lain sudah tersebar virus ini. Tetapi pada saat itu kurangnya ketegasan dari pemerintah sendiri yang menyebabkan masih banyaknya wisatawan dan WNI /WNA yang masuk ke Indonesia dari luar negeri yang mejadi salah satu pemicu persebaran. Sebetulnya Indonesia memiliki Undang-Undang yang mengatur perihal Wabah Penyakit Menular yang diatur dalam Undang-Undang No. 4 Tahun 1984, tetapi undang-undang tidak juga tidak efektif dan memuat ketentuan yang tidak lengkap untuk mengurangi persebaran virus Covid-19 terus meningkat setiap harinya. Salah satu upaya dasar yang dilakukan untuk pencegahan virus Covid-19 diantaranya dengan menggunakan masker dan hand sanitizer. Apabila kita mengacu pada Undang-Undang No. 8 Tahun 1999 tentang Perlindungan Konsumen maka adanya kepastian hukum untuk perlindungan kepada konsumen, yang artinya bahwa setiap pribadi berhak atas barang tersebut (yang tersedia di masyarakat). Namun kebutuhan semakin meningkat akan masker dan hand sanitizer justru menjadi peluang bagi distributor dan pelaku usaha untuk menjual dengan harga selangit bahkan menimbunnya. Beruntung Indonesia memiliki Undang-Undang yang mengaturnya dengan memberikan sanksi sebagaimana diatur dalam Pasal 107 Undang-Undang No. 7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdangangan yang berbunyi : “ Pelaku Usaha yang menyimpan Barang kebutuhan pokok dan/atau Barang penting dalam jumlah dan waktu tertentu pada saat terjadi kelangkaan Barang, gejolak harga, dan/atau hambatan lalu lintas Perdagangan Barang sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 29 ayat (1) dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 5 (lima) tahun dan/atau pidana denda paling banyak Rp50.000.000.000,00 (lima puluh miliar rupiah)”. Upaya pemerintah berupa anjuran untuk “dirumah saja” terus dilakukan tetapi masih terdapat  banyak kegiatan yang dilakukan diluar rumah sehingga persebaran terus meningkat dan semakin banyak pasien yang dinyatakan positif virus Covid-19. Hal ini disebabkan karena tidak diimbangi dengan regulasi yang tegas. Sehingga  Pada 31 Maret 2020 ditetapkannya lah PP No.21 Tahun 2020 Tentang Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSSB) dalam Rangka Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) yang saling mendukung dengan Keputusan Presiden RI Nomor 12 Tahun 2020 tentang Penetapan Bencana Nonalam Penyebaran Corona Virus Desease 2019 (Covid-19) Sebagai Bencana Nasional pada tanggal 13 April 2020. Peraturan ini terbentuk dengan latar belakang yang pertama jumlah kasus dan/atau jumlah kematian akibat penyakit meningkat dan menyebar secara signifikan dan cepat ke beberapa wilayah dan yang kedua terdapat kaitan epidemiologis dengan kejadian serupa di wilayah atau negara lain. PP tentang PSBB ini memberikan pembatasan diantaranya peliburan sekolah dan tempat kerja, pembatasan kegiatan keagamaan dan/atau pembatasan kegiatan di tempat atau fasilitas umum. Meski tujuannya baik tetapi terdapat beberapa polemik yang dimana hingga saat ini terdapat 2,8 juta pekerja terkena dampaknya dan sebanyak 749,4 ribu pekerja formal di PHK.[1] Hal ini terjadi akibat terhentinya operasional tempat mereka bekerja yang dimana perusahaan swasta terebut tidak dapat menjalankan aktivitas sebagaimana mestinya. PHK terjadi karena keadaan maksa (force majeur) dari suatu perusahaan akibat terhambatnya aktivitas karena pandemi Covid-19 sehingga berdasarkan Pasal 164 ayat (1) UU No. 13 Tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan,  Pengusaha dapat melakukan pemutusan hubungan kerja terhadap pekerja/buruh karena perusahaan tutup yang disebabkan perusahaan mengalami kerugian secara terus menerus selama 2 (dua) tahun, atau keadaan memaksa (force majeur), dengan ketentuan pekerja/buruh berhak atas uang pesangon sebesar 1 (satu) kali ketentuan Pasal 156 ayat (2) uang penghargaan masa kerja sebesar 1 (satu) kali ketentuan Pasal 156 ayat (3) dan uang penggantian hak sesuai ketentuan Pasal 156 ayat (4). Tetapi pasal ini dapat dilakukan apabila perusahaan tersebut dinyatakan tutup secara permanen, namun apabila perusahaan hanya tutup sementara hingga selesainya pandemi Covid-19 maka perusahaan tidak dapat melakukan PHK terhadap pekerja melainkan hanya menunda hak dan kewajiban para pihak sementara. Dampak ekonomi sangat berpengaruh akibat pandemi Covid-19 yang dimana terdapat penurunan dalam pendapatan negara melalui berbagai sektor, antara lain penerbangan dan pariwisata. Berlakunya PSBB yang mengharuskan Work From Home mengakibatkan menurunnya dan terhambatnya akses penerbangan domestik maupun luar negeri karena sejatinya tidak ada petugas bandara dan maskapai yang boleh bertugas secara langsung di bandara. Dari segi pariwisaata,  devisa negara juga terus menurun karena dibatasinya segala akses wisata dan bentuk fasilitas umum juga rendahnya tingkat wisatawan yang mau datang akibat persebaran virus Covid-19 yang terus meningkat. Dari sisi permintaan, UMKM secara drastis mengalami penurunan dari para konsumen. Akibat wabah, para konsumen mengalami kondisi psikologis takut tertular penyakit sehingga mengurung diri di dalam rumah. Kondisi tersebut tentunya akan berdampak pada penurunan pendapatan yang secara tidak langsung mengurangi pengeluaran dan pola konsumsi mereka. Penyebaran virus juga mengganggu UMKM yang beroperasi lintas batas atau antarnegara karena pasokan barang mentah untuk produksi yang bersumber dari luar negeri mengalami gangguan karena blokade dan pengurangan aktivitas transportasi regional di lingkup darat, laut, dan udara. Selain itu, permintaan produk UMKM secara global juga mengalami penurunan terutama yang berkaitan dengan sektor pariwisata karena kunjungan ke berbagai destinasi wisata mengalami penurunan secara drastis.             Dengan adanya PPSBB mengharuskan social distancing yang dimana segala kegiatan saat ini dilakukan secara online melalui rumah masing-masing. Banyak pribadi yang merasa terpuruk dalam hal finansial atau ekonomi akibat pandemi Covid-19 terlebih lagi karena pemutusan hubungan kerja dan terbatasnya solusi untuk mencari pekerjaan saat ini. Tingkat kriminal semakin meningkat karena kebutuhan dan harga yang semakin meningkat pula. Peran pemerintah sangat diperlukan melalui bantuan untuk tim medis dan korban Covid-19, tetapi perlu menengok pula masyarakat-masyarakat yang memerlukan bantuan untuk mencukupi kebutuhan hidupnya sehari-hari . Apresiasi terhadap tim medis selalu kita berikan sebagai bentuk penghormatan atas jasanya ditengah wabah virus Covid-19 ini. Kita sama-sama berharap dan berdoa agar pandemi ini cepat berlalu sehingga dapat melaksanakan kegiatan kita masing-masing sebagaimana mestinya. Persatuan dan kesatuan masyarakat untuk taat akan hukum diperlukan saat ini yang nantinya berdampak baik bagi masyarakat itu sendiri. [1] https://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/nasional/pr-01368492/kemnaker-berdayakan-korban-phk-melalui-program-padat-karya

SOLIDARITAS AKIBAT COVID-19 OLEH MARGARETH BERTHA CHRISNADIA
03, Jun

SOLIDARITAS AKIBAT COVID-19   Oleh Margareth Bertha Chrisnadia,160512508 Mahasiswa FAkultas Hukum Universitas Atma Jaya YogyakartaProgram Kekhususan Pertanahan dan Lingkungan Hidup margarethbertha@gmail.com   Pandemi Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) melanda Bangsa Indonesia. Beberapa bulan yang lalu, pemerintah mengumumkan bahwa ada masyarakat Indonesia yang positif terkena Covid-19 ini, pemerintah menghimbau kepada masyarakat bahwa akan diberlakukan sistem lock down. Namun ada hal yang disayangkan, sebenarnya pemerintah sudah membentuk aturan apabila terjadi pandemi tetapi tidak langsung digunakan. Aturan tersebut adalah UU Nomor 6 Tahun 2018 Tentang Kekarantinaan Kesehatan. UU Nomor 6 Tahun 2018 ini mengamanatkan bahwa pemerintah pusat dan pemerintah daerah bertanggung jawab melindungi kesehatan masyarakat dari penyakit dan/atau faktor risiko kesehatan masyarakat yang berpotensi menimbulkan kedaruratan kesehatan melalui penyelenggaraan kekarantinaan masyarakat. Di Indonesia sendiri, status virus corona sebagai penyakit menular yang dapat memicu adanya kedaruratan kesehatan masyarakat telah ditetapkan dalam Keputusan Presiden Nomor 11 Tahun 2020 tentang Penetapan Kedaruratan Kesehatan Masyarakat Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID- 19). Kemudian pemerintah membentuk Peraturan mengenai pembatasan sosial berskala besar (PSBB) yang semakin hari semakin banyak diterapkan dimana-mana. Secara khusus dalam Pasal 1 Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 2020 tentang Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar dalam Rangka Percepatan Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (“PP 21/2020”), pembatasan sosial berskala besar berarti pembatasan kegiatan tertentu penduduk dalam suatu wilayah yang diduga terinfeksi COVID-19 sedemikian rupa untuk mencegah kemungkinan penyebaran virus tersebut. Dengan persetujuan Menteri Kesehatan, pemerintah daerah dapat pula melakukan pembatasan sosial berskala besar atau pembatasan terhadap pergerakan orang dan barang untuk satu provinsi atau kabupaten/kota tertentu saja. Secara hukum, pemerintah sudah menjalankan tugas dan kewenangannya untuk menyelesaikan persoalan pandemi Covid-19 ini. Namun, pada kenyataannya masyarakat beklum bisa sepenuhnya mengikuti hukum yang ada. Pandemi Covid-19 yang sedang melanda hampir seluruh belahan dunia menjadi perhatian banyak kalangan. Tidak ada yang menyangka bahwa Pandemi ini dapat merusak tatanan kehidupan dalam masyarakat. Semua kalangan dari berbagai lapisan masyarakat terkena dampak dari pandemi ini. Baik dampak langsung maupun tidak langsung. Mulai dampak dari aspek ekonomi, kesehatan fisik maupun psikis, sosial, politik, serta budaya. Masyarakat tidak dapat bekerja seperti biasa, pertemuan dibatasi, serta masyarakat yang terbiasa dengan berkumpul harus merubah kebiasaannya untuk di rumah saja. Namun dengan permasalahan ekonomi masyarakat Indonesia belum siap untuk menerapkan sistem tersebut. Banyak perusahaan yang tidak menutup kantornya karena perusahaan akan mati apabila pekerjaan tidak berjalan. Begitu juga dengan masyarakat yang bekerja membiayai hidup dengan upah harian, seperti pedagang makanan, pedagang dipasar, petugas kebersihan, penjaga keamanan, ojek online, dsb. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pemerintah belum memerberikan solusi yang tepat untuk masyarakat. Pemerintah belum bisa menjamin pemenuhan kebutuhan bagi seluruh masyarakat Indonesia. Untuk itu pemerintah mengeluarkan kebijakan untuk membantu menangani pandemi ini, seperti mengerahkan anggaran belanja untuk sarana dan prasarana sektor kesehatan, memberi keringanan kredit dan pajak bagi pelaku UMKM, Kartu Prakerja, dsb. Dampak dari pandemi ini menyebabkan banyak masyarakat yang tetap bekerja meski sudah ada pemberlakuan PSBB. Selain itu, untuk membantu percepartan penanganan pandemi ini, muncul berbagai gerakan masyarakat demi melindungi masyarakat dari lingkungan terkecil, yaitu lingkungan Rukun Tetangga (RT) atau Rukun Warga (RW). Contohnya masyarakat berinisiatif untuk menutup akses jalan rumah agar tidak sembarang orang dapat keluar dan masuk. Banyak pula bermunculan aksi donasi untuk membantu tenaga medis dan warga yang terkena dampak pandemi. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa aturan maupun kebijakan pemerintah, apabila tidak didukung oleh partisipasi masyarakat maka hasilnya tidak akan sesuai dengan tujuan. Baik pemerintah maupun masyarakat perlu saling merangkul agar dapat melawan pandemi Covid-19.   Sumber https://www.hukumonline.com/klinik/detail/ulasan/lt5e74a69e9bf8d/hak-rakyat-jika-terjadi-i-lockdown-i-/ www.kemenkeu.go.id/covid19

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